This is the arena in which the survival of the human species is played out.The occupants of the cultural ecological niche impose a series of selective pressures on each other as they use language and other aspects of culture to their advantage.At the time when Darwin was writing, there was only the most rudimentary sort of a fossil record to support his view, and he was further hindered by the use of the term man to stand for the human species as a whole.As that word suggests, there was a tendency to conceive of males as typifying the human condition.Much later, in the middle of the 19th century, Charles Darwin, in his brilliant book 'On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection' (1859), forced the world to face the fact that all the living creatures of the world had almost certainly descended from a common ancestor.He further developed that view in his work 'The Descent of Man' (1871), in which he specifically stated that humankind ultimately shared a common origin with the rest of animate nature.
From long before the time of the ancient Greeks, human beings were generally recognized as members of the animal world.
In general, those who have trouble learning the rudiments of language will have less chance for survival.
The cultural ecological niche puts a premium on those portions of the brain associated with linguistic capability.
Obviously, females are of equal importance to the survival of the human species, and, somewhat belatedly, the field of biological anthropology has come to realize that males and females require equal attention if the phenomenon of humankind and how it emerged from its nonhuman predecessors is ever to be understood.
It came as something of a surprise when scientists determined that human beings share almost 99 percent of their genetic material with chimpanzees.
Evidence from East African fossils indicates that erect-walking bipedalism began at least 3.5 million years ago, substantially before there was any significant expansion of brain size over anthropoid ape levels.